二零一四年考研丹麦语语法长难句精析

2019-11-03 11:54栏目:教育考试

  澳门新萄京,2015年考研[微博]英语语法长难句精析(一)

  第三天:抓住阅读五层递进——阅读必背句子

澳门新萄京 1
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  考研英语长难句解析涉及到各个题型,考生如果能够精确的理解长难句,然后再结合各题型的技巧,考生在做题时就可以得心应手了,当然,最基本的词汇基础是要贯穿到复习的各个阶段,目前考生有了一定的词汇基础,并且对于基础语法也有一定的了解,但是遇到长难句时就难以下手,下面老师给考生分享下如何精析长难句。

  阅读命题常针对长难句。所以很有必要熟悉长难句的种类以及它们各自的重点。今天先介绍长难句的把握方法,再给出一些典型的句子,建议熟读甚至背诵,以做到考试时碰到类似句子就能抓住重点。

  • 新浪教育考研栏目征稿启示
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  • 2015全国各地高校调剂信息平台
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  • 2015年考研考生发布调剂意向区

  1. The physicist rightly dreads preciseargument, since an argument that is convincing only if it is precise loses allits force if the assumptions on which it is based are slightly changed whereasan argument that is convincing though imprecise may well be stable under smallperturbations of its underlying assumptions。

  一、 长难句一般应对策略

  阅读命题常针对长难句。所以很有必要熟悉长难句的种类以及它们各自的重点。下面给出一些典型的句子,建议熟读甚至背诵,以做到考试时碰到类似句子就能抓住重点。

  解析:本句的定语从句较多,首先要分清主干,然后根据从句调整语序:since后的主干是:an argument loses all its force,argument 后的that引导的是定语从句修饰argument,if引导的是条件状语从句,if后的主干是:the assumptions are slightly changed.  on which 修饰assumption, whereas后的主干是:an argument may well be stable. 其中that是引导argument的定语从句,under后面的是状语。

  1.从句又多又长:一个主句带多个从句,从句中又含有从句

新萄京娱乐手机版,  1、复合句

  参考翻译:科学家有理由担心精确的讨论,如果基于这个讨论的假设发生变化,那么这个值得信赖的讨论就会失去它所有的威力,然而在潜在的假设下,这个虽不精确但还值得信赖的讨论可能仍然值得担忧。

  应对方法:先抓主干,找出复杂句中最核心的主谓宾,再层层展开

  When a new movement in art attains a certain fashion, it is advisable to find out what its advocates are aiming at, for, however farfetched and unreasonable their principles may seem today, it is possible that in years to come they may be regarded as normal。

  2. He is referring to the upsurge ofinterest in mobile television, a nascent industry at the intersection oftelecoms and media which offers new opportunities to device-makers,content producers and mobile-network operators。

  2.句子中带有长长的插入成分:用插入语来交代某句话是谁说的或者是说话人的身份,或解释、说明前面的内容

  [结构分析]

  解析:本句的主干是:He is referring to the upsurgeof interest in mobile television. 逗号后是同位语从句修饰mobile television,在同位语从句中出现whichoffers new opportunities to device-makers, content producers and mobile-networkoperators. 引导的定语从句,补充说明nascent industry。

  应对方法:理解句子主干时,先不理会插入语,等把主句的意思看完整,然后再看插入成分

  本句的主干是it is advisable to find out... for... it is possible that...,句首的When引导一个时间状语从句,句中的for... it is possible... (至句末)是一个并列分句,表示原因,其中for后面的however 形容词farfetched and unreasonable引导状语从句,表示让步。在主干it is advisable to find out... 中,it是形式主语,后面的不定式结构to find out what its advocates are aiming at是真正的主语。

  参考翻译:他谈到了众人对移动电视的巨大兴趣,这是一个在电信和媒体领域有交叉的新兴产业,它给设备制造商、电视内容制作者以及移动网络运营商提供了新的机遇。

  3. 分词短语、独立主格结构的干扰

  [参考译文]

  3. Meanwhile, Apple Computer, whichlaunched a video-capable version of its iPod portable music-player in October,is striking deals with television networks to expand the range of shows thatcan be purchased for viewing on the device, including “Lost”,

  应对方法:主句最重要的特征就是有完整的主谓结构,尤其是独立的谓语部分。一个看似句子的结构,如果没有独立的谓语部分,它就不是句子,而是分词短语、独立主格结构等,可以先跳过不看

  当艺术上的一项新运动达到一定流行程度时,最好先弄清该运动倡导者的目的,因为,无论他们的创作原则在今天看来多么牵强、多么荒谬,在未来这些理论有可能会被视为正常的东西。

  “Desperate Housewives” and “Law &Order”。

  4. 三种情况的混合

  2、并列句

  解析:本句比较长,出现了非定语从句的分隔结构,本句的主干是:Apple Computer is striking deals with television networks to expandthe range of shows…,出现了which launched a video-capable version ofits iPod portable music-player in October,引导的定语从句修饰Apple Computer。That引导的定语从句修饰shows。句末的分词结构including“Lost”, “Desperate Housewives”and “Law &Order”作伴随状语,表明range ofshows的具体内容。

  应对方法:从前向后,抓住独立的谓语部分,从而区分出主句和分词状语,再根据主句与从句之间的连接词,区分出主句和从句,层层扩展理解,插入语在哪个层次,就放在哪个层次理解

  While talking to you, your could-be employer is deciding whether your education, your experience, and other qualifications will pay him to employ you and your “wares” and abilities must be displayed in an orderly and reasonably connected manner。

  参考翻译:与此同时,苹果电脑公司在10月发售了一款可以观看电视的便携式音乐播放器iPod,该公司大大帮助了电视网络扩大其可以供用户购买的、用于在移动终端的节目范围,

  二、 特殊句型

  [结构分析]

  包括《迷失》、《绝望的主妇》以及《法律与秩序》。

  对于特殊句型,如虚拟语气,可以将其理解成一种反事实假设,也就是作者的观点和态度与之相反。对于分隔结构而言,其主干一般在破折号、逗号和定语从句之外,阅读时可以先跳过修饰成分。对于关联结构,要学会寻找第二部分,因为第二部分有时是句子的重点。如在not…but…之中,重点在but…之后。

  这也是一个并列句,包含两个分句。第一个分句的主干是your could-be employer is deciding whether...,其中whether引导一个宾语从句whether your education, your experience, and other qualifications will pay him to employ you;第二个分句的主干是your “wares” and abilities must be displayed...。注意:pay sb. to do sth。此处的意思是“做…对…有利”;“wares”的本义是“商品、货物”,但在本文中,作者认为找工作就是推销自己,所以结合本文的背景,wares的意思是“(求职者的)资历或能力”。

  以上便是我们与考生分享的语法长难句精析,希望考生们多做这方面的练习题,逐步掌握解析长难句的技巧。

  三、具体句子

  [参考译文]

  2015年考研英语语法长难句精析(二)

  1.复合句

  与你谈话时,可能成为你未来老板的人会考虑你所受的教育、你的经历和你的其他资历是否在雇佣你以后会给他带来好处。你的“资历”和能力必须有条不紊、合理连贯地展示出来。

  考生在分析英语长难句时要注意语法在句子中的“混搭”,对于综合语法的运用,考生要有能识别的慧眼,下面老师给考生详细解析:

  When a new movement in art attains a certain fashion, it is advisable to find out what its advocates are aiming at, for, however farfetched and unreasonable their principles may seem today, it is possible that in years to come they may be regarded as normal.

  3、定语从句

  1. Some technologies do indeed improve at such a predictable pace that theyobey simple formulae such as Moore’s law, which acts as a battle plan for thesemiconductor industry。

  [参考译文]

  The change met the technical requirements of the new age by engaging a large professional element and prevented the decline in efficiency that so commonly spoiled the fortunes of family firms in the second and third generation after the energetic founders。

  解析:本句不是很长,结构比较清晰,主句为Some technologies do indeed improve at such a predictable pace thatthey obey simple formulae such as Moore’s law,这里考生要能识别出such…that…结构;后面的 which引导非限制性定语从句,修饰先行词formulae such as Moore’s law,which在从句中作主语。

  当艺术上的一项新运动达到一定流行程度时,最好先弄清该运动倡导者的目的,因为,无论他们的创作原则在今天看来多么牵强、多么荒谬,在未来这些理论有可能会被视为正常的东西。

  [结构分析]

  参考译文:的确,有些技术的进步是以一种可预测的节奏进行着,它们遵循摩尔定律般简单的公式,好比是半导体工业的行动计划。

  [结构分析]

  本句是一个并列句,以and连接;第一个分句的主干是The change met the technical requirements...,后面的介词结构by engaging a large professional element作状语,说明met the technical requirements of the new age的方式;第二个分句的主干是(the change) prevented the decline in efficiency,后面的that引导的定语从句修饰decline in efficiency。注意:engage此处的意思是“雇,聘”。

  2. Visit many online sites to research a car, and they will sell your nameimmediately to local dealerships which will then harass you in theold-fashioned way。

  本句的主干是it is advisable to find out... for... it is possible that...,句首的When引导一个时间状语从句,句中的for... it is possible... (至句末)是一个并列分句,表示原因,其中for后面的however 形容词farfetched and unreasonable引导状语从句,表示让步。在主干it is advisable to find out... 中,it是形式主语,后面的不定式结构to find out what its advocates are aiming at是真正的主语。

  [参考译文]

  解析:本句是and引导的两个并列分句。注意前一分句省略了和后一分句相同的主语they(指代网络销售商)。同时也可以理解为是:祈使句 and 一般将来时,后一分句中,they will sell your nameimmediately to local dealerships是主句,关系代词which引导定语从句whichwill then harass you in the old fashioned way,which指代上文的一整句话。

  2.并列句

  通过雇用大量的职业人才,这一变化满足了新时代的技术要求,防止了效率下降——在过去,这种效率下降经常使家族公司在充满活力的创业者之后的第二代或第三代毁掉全部财产。

  参考译文:网络销售商通过访问大量的网站去寻找一部车,然后就会把你的名字提供给当地的经销商,这又会让你重回到以前那种购车模式所带来的困扰中。

  While talking to you, your could-be employer is deciding whether your education, your experience, and other qualifications will pay him to employ you and your “wares” and abilities must be displayed in an orderly and reasonably connected manner.

  4、名词性从句

  3.  Even China’s population will be declining bythe early 2030s, according to the UN, which projects that by 2050 populationswill be lower than they are today in 50 countries。

  [参考译文]

  Online culture thinks highly of the notion that the information flowing onto the screen comes there by specific request。

  解析:本句的主句为China’s population will be declining by the early 2030s。其后的定语从句which projects that by 2050populations will be lower than they are today in 50 countries修UN,关系代词在从句中作主语,注意这里project作动词用,译为“指出”,且从句里使用了比较级。

  与你谈话时,可能成为你未来老板的人会考虑你所受的教育、你的经历和你的其他资历是否在雇佣你以后会给他带来好处。你的“资历”和能力必须有条不紊、合理连贯地展示出来。

  [结构分析]

  参考译文:联合国有关报告指出,即便是中国,到2030年初期人口也将开始递减。这份报告同时还指出,到2050年,将有50个国家的人口低于今天的水平。

  [结构分析]

  本句的主干是Online culture thinks highly of the notion that...,其中notion后面的that引导一个同位语从句,说明notion的具体内容;同位语从句的主干是the information...comes there...,其中flowing onto the screen作定语,修饰the information,句末的by specific request作状语,修饰come there。

  4.  That is surely how history will judge moderncriticism of video games, which are accused of turning young people intoviolent criminals.        

  这也是一个并列句,包含两个分句。第一个分句的主干是your could-be employer is deciding whether...,其中whether引导一个宾语从句whether your education, your experience, and other qualifications will pay him to employ you;第二个分句的主干是your “wares” and abilities must be displayed...。注意:pay sb. to do sth.此处的意思是“做…对…有利”;“wares”的本义是“商品、货物”,但在本文中,作者认为找工作就是推销自己,所以结合本文的背景,wares的意思是“(求职者的)资历或能力”。

  [参考译文]

  解析:本句的主句是主系表结构:That is surely how history will judge modern criticism of videogames,其中表语是how引导的名词性从句,定语从句which are accused ofturning young people into violent criminals修饰video games,关系代词which指代先行词videogames,which在从句中作主语,考生要注意这里使用了被动语态be accused of,在翻译时我们译成主动。

  3.定语从句

  网络文化非常推崇这样一种理念:出现在用户屏幕上的信息应该是根据用户特定要求发送过来的。

  参考译文:对于当今时代那些控诉电视游戏使年轻人变成暴力罪犯的批评者们,历史最终也将对他们作出同样的批判。

  The change met the technical requirements of the new age by engaging a large professional element and prevented the decline in efficiency that so commonly spoiled the fortunes of family firms in the second and third generation after the energetic founders.

  5、状语从句

  以上便是老师与大家分享的语法在长难句中的应用,希望考生能够认真总结句子中的语法,多练习,熟练掌握。

  [参考译文]

  Consumers seem only concerned, not panicked, and many say they remain optimistic about the economy’s long-term prospects, even as they do some modest belt tightening。

  (文章来源:文都教育)

  通过雇用大量的职业人才,这一变化满足了新时代的技术要求,防止了效率下降——在过去,这种效率下降经常使家族公司在充满活力的创业者之后的第二代或第三代毁掉全部财产。

  [结构分析]

  [结构分析]

  本句是以and连接的并列句,其中第二个分句的主干是many say...,say后面的部分是宾语从句,其中还包含一个as引导的让步状语从句。

  本句是一个并列句,以and连接;第一个分句的主干是The change met the technical requirements...,后面的介词结构by engaging a large professional element作状语,说明met the technical requirements of the new age的方式;第二个分句的主干是(the change) prevented the decline in efficiency,后面的that引导的定语从句修饰decline in efficiency。注意:engage此处的意思是“雇,聘”。

  [参考译文]

  4.名词性从句

  消费者们看上去只是有点担心,而没有恐慌,很多消费者说尽管他们正在把开支紧缩一点,但是他们对经济的长期前景仍然保持乐观。

  Online culture thinks highly of the notion that the information flowing onto the screen comes there by specific request.

  6、特殊结构

  [参考译文]

  (1)强调句

  网络文化非常推崇这样一种理念:出现在用户屏幕上的信息应该是根据用户特定要求发送过来的。

  Perhaps it is humankind’s long suffering at the mercy of flood and drought that makes the ideal of forcing the waters to do our bidding so fascinating。

  [结构分析]

  [结构分析]

  本句的主干是Online culture thinks highly of the notion that...,其中notion后面的that引导一个同位语从句,说明notion的具体内容;同位语从句的主干是the information...comes there...,其中flowing onto the screen作定语,修饰the information,句末的by specific request作状语,修饰come there。

  这是一个强调句,基本结构是it is...suffering...that makes...so fascinating,被强调部分是humankind’s long suffering at the mercy of flood and drought,其中的中心词是suffering,有两个修饰成分:humankind’s long和at the mercy of flood and drought(受旱涝摆布)都做suffering的定语。suffering这个词除了是被强调的部分外,还是后面that引导的从句的主语;在that引导的从句中,ideal做宾语,带有of引导的动名词短语forcing the waters to do our bidding(让河水听我们吩咐)这个定语;so fascinating做ideal的宾语补语,说明ideal的特点。

  5.状语从句

  [参考译文]

  Consumers seem only concerned, not panicked, and many say they remain optimistic about the economy’s long-term prospects, even as they do some modest belt tightening.

  也许正是因为人类长期以来遭受旱涝摆布的痛苦,才使他们制服洪水的理想显得如此令人着迷。

  [参考译文]

  (2)倒装结构

  消费者们看上去只是有点担心,而没有恐慌,很多消费者说尽管他们正在把开支紧缩一点,但是他们对经济的长期前景仍然保持乐观。

  Nowhere do 1980 census statistics dramatize more the American search for spacious living than in the Far West。

  [结构分析]

  [结构分析]

  本句是以and连接的并列句,其中第二个分句的主干是many say...,say后面的部分是宾语从句,其中还包含一个as引导的让步状语从句。

  否定副词nowhere放在句首,所以句子出现部分倒装。注意:more 与否定词nowhere一起使用,相当于最高级。dramatize此处的意思是“突出显示,使…戏剧化”。

  6.特殊结构

  [参考译文]

  Perhaps it is humankind’s long suffering at the mercy of flood and drought that makes the ideal of forcing the waters to do our bidding so fascinating.

  1980年美国的人口普查数据表明,没有哪个地方比美国最西部更能突出显示美国人想寻找更广阔的生存空间。

  [参考译文]

  (3)比较结构

  也许正是因为人类长期以来遭受旱涝摆布的痛苦,才使他们制服洪水的理想显得如此令人着迷。

  Mr. McWhorter’s academic specialty is language history and change, and he sees the gradual disappearance of “whom”, for example, to be natural and no more regrettable than the loss of the case-endings of Old English。

  [结构分析]

  [结构分析]

  这是一个强调句,基本结构是it is...suffering...that makes...so fascinating,被强调部分是humankind’s long suffering at the mercy of flood and drought,其中的中心词是suffering,有两个修饰成分:humankind’s long和at the mercy of flood and drought(受旱涝摆布)都做suffering的定语。suffering这个词除了是被强调的部分外,还是后面that引导的从句的主语;在that引导的从句中,ideal做宾语,带有of引导的动名词短语forcing the waters to do our bidding(让河水听我们吩咐)这个定语;so fascinating做ideal的宾语补语,说明ideal的特点。

  本句是一个并列句,包含两个以and连接的分句,其中第二个分句比较复杂:宾语是the gradual disappearance of “whom”, for example,接着是to be natural and no more regrettable,这一部分作上述宾语的补足语,最后是比较结构no more... than... (像…一样不…)。

  Nowhere do 1980 census statistics dramatize more the American search for spacious living than in the Far West.

  [参考译文]

  [参考译文]

  麦克沃特先生的学术专长是语言史和语言变化。举例来说,他认为“whom”一词的逐渐消失是很自然的,像古英中词格结尾的消失一样不令人惋惜。

  1980年美国的人口普查数据表明,没有哪个地方比美国最西部更能突出显示美国人想寻找更广阔的生存空间。

  (4)分隔结构

  [结构分析]

  With regard to Futurist poetry, however, the case is rather difficult, for whatever Futurist poetry may be—even admitting that the theory on which it is based may be right—it can hardly be classed as Literature。

  否定副词nowhere放在句首,所以句子出现部分倒装。注意:more 与否定词nowhere一起使用,相当于最高级。dramatize此处的意思是“突出显示,使…戏剧化”。

  [结构分析]

  7.分隔结构

  本句的主干是the case is rather difficult, for... it can hardly be classed as Literature,前面的however表示本句与前一句形成对比,句首的介词结构With regard to Futurist poetry作状语,其中with regard to的意思是“关于…”; for... it can hardly be classed as Literature是一个并列分句,表示原因,主干是it can hardly be classed as Literature; for后面的从句whatever Futurist poetry may be表示让步,作状语;破折号之间的部分even admitting that... 也是让步状语,其中that 引导一个宾语从句that the theory... may be right,而从句的主语theory后又带有定语从句on which it is based。

  With regard to Futurist poetry, however, the case is rather difficult, for whatever Futurist poetry may be—even admitting that the theory on which it is based may be right—it can hardly be classed as Literature.

  [参考译文]

  [参考译文]

  然而就未来主义诗歌而言,情况就很难说了,因为不管未来主义诗歌是什么——即使承认其理论基础是正确的——也很难将其归为文学。

  然而就未来主义诗歌而言,情况就很难说了,因为不管未来主义诗歌是什么——即使承认其理论基础是正确的——也很难将其归为文学。

  来源:万学海文

  [结构分析]

  本句的主干是the case is rather difficult, for... it can hardly be classed as Literature,前面的however表示本句与前一句形成对比,句首的介词结构With regard to Futurist poetry作状语,其中with regard to的意思是“关于…”;for... it can hardly be classed as Literature是一个并列分句,表示原因,主干是it can hardly be classed as Literature;for后面的从句whatever Futurist poetry may be表示让步,作状语;破折号之间的部分even admitting that... 也是让步状语,其中that 引导一个宾语从句that the theory... may be right,而从句的主语theory后又带有定语从句on which it is based。

  8.关联结构

  A survey of news stories in 1996 reveals that the antiscience tag has been attached to many other groups as well, from authorities who advocated the elimination of the last remaining stocks of smallpox virus to Republicans who advocated decreased funding for basic research.

  [参考译文]

  1996年进行的一项新闻调查表明,反科学的标签还被贴在其他许多团体身上——从主张消灭最后剩下的各种天花病毒的机构,到主张减少基础研究经费的共和党人。

  [结构分析]

  本句的主干是A survey...reveals that...,主语是survey,谓语是reveals,后面的that引导一个宾语从句,其主干是:the antiscience tag has been attached to many other groups as well,后面的部分是from和to连接的两个名词:from authorities...to Republicans...,说明other groups的内容,而两个名词后面各自带一个定语从句,都由who引导。

  The astonishing distrust of the news media isn’t rooted in inaccuracy or poor reportorial skills but in the daily clash of world views between reporters and their readers.

  [参考译文]

  读者对新闻媒体令人惊讶的不信任并非源于报道失实或报道技能较差,而是源于记者和读者之间世界观的日常冲突。

  [结构分析]

  本句的主干是distrust ... isn’t rooted in... but in... (不信任的根源不是…而是…),其中be rooted in... 的意思是“根源在于…”。注意:这是一种特殊句式,重点在but之后的部分。

  9.难词与词组

  Mr. McWhorter’s academic specialty is language history and change, and he sees the gradual disappearance of “whom”, for example, to be natural and no more regrettable than the loss of the case-endings of Old English.

  [参考译文]

  麦克沃特先生的学术专长是语言史和语言变化。举例来说,他认为“whom”一词的逐渐消失是很自然的,象古英语中词格结尾的消失一样不令人惋惜。

  [结构分析]

  本句是一个并列句,包含两个以and连接的分句,其中第二个分句比较复杂:宾语是the gradual disappearance of “whom”, for example,接着是to be natural and no more regrettable,这一部分作上述宾语的补足语,最后是比较结构no more... than... (象…一样不…)。

  10.指代

  “The term ‘antiscience’ can lump together too many, quite different things,” notes Harvard University philosopher Gerald Holton in his 1993 work Science and Anti-Science, “They have in common only one thing that they tend to annoy or threaten those who regard themselves as more enlightened.”

  [参考译文]

  哈佛大学哲学教授杰拉尔德•霍尔顿在他1993年出版的《科学和反科学》一书中指出:“‘反科学’一词把太多很不相同的内容混为一谈——而这些内容只有一点是共同的,那就是它们往往惹恼或者威胁到那些自以为比别人知识更多的人。”

  [结构分析]

  本句是一个直接引语,说话人是Harvard University philosopher Gerald Holton,动词note在此处的意思是“指出”。直接引语的第一部分是个简单句,其中lump together的字面意思是“把…混为一谈,把…归并到一起”。直接引语的第二部分比较复杂,主干是They have in common only one thing…,that they tend to annoy or threaten those…是同位语从句,说明先行词one thing的具体内容,其中those带有一个修饰它的定语从句who regard themselves as more enlightened。这一部分的难点之一是代词的指代问题:第一个they指代直接引语第一部分的too many, quite different things,因为they一般指代复数名词;第二个they也是一样;themselves就近指代前面的those,指人。要判断指代关系,可以根据“单复数”和“就近原则”等标准进行,然后将确定的指代对象代入,看是否通顺和合乎逻辑。

  (本文撰写时参考了李传伟编著的《2010年考研英语真题长难句突破》和《2010年考研英语阅读真题全方位突破》)

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版权声明:本文由澳门新萄京发布于教育考试,转载请注明出处:二零一四年考研丹麦语语法长难句精析